In light of current litigation and the requirements of the law, employers should take a number of steps to protect themselves from claims of religious discrimination.
This article provides a description of Islamic religious practices. It then reviews the role of the First Amendment, state religious freedom acts and civil rights laws as protections afforded to religious persons in the public sector. Through a review of court cases from 1994 to 2001, it describes the status of court protections for Muslim religious practice in the public workforce.
The perception of discrimination decreases with the existence of publicized written policies. This survey indicates that to benefit optimally from a diverse workforce, companies need: 1. flexible policies, 2. attentiveness to and respect for religious and racial diversity, 3. intolerance of all forms of bias and prejudice, and 4. proactive stances toward hearing and addressing the concerns of all workers, both native and foreign-born.
Explores the implications of the ruling of the Fourth Circuit of the United States Court of Appeals on the case Chalmers versus Tulon Co. of Richmond which involves the issue of religious freedom and free speech.
Religion plays an important role in the values that people hold, however, many employees believe employers are not proactive enough in meeting their religious needs. Employers need to look for ways to avoid future accommodation suits by being prepared to deal with religious issues in the workplace.
This article investigates the current state of religious and spiritual practice in business organizations and discusses the impact of employment law on such activity. It offers a broad and inclusive interpretation of religious and spiritual belief relevant to the workplace and provides a framework for addressing accommodation concerns.
In this article, it is argued that, in most cases, the reason employers have been allowed to discriminate against employees is the contentious nature of minority religious beliefs with the mainstream religious culture.
This paper describes correlates of religiosity that may affect individual behavior in the workplace, such as physical and mental health, coping, concern for others, creativity, commitment, ethical behavior, prejudice, intelligence and personality.
Focuses on the accommodation of religion in the American workplace. Surveys on religious accommodation, religious discrimination, employment law related to religious accommodation, and world religions.
Labor market outcomes (occupation access, entry wage, and wait time for call back) in Athens, Greece are assessed for three religious minorities (Pentecostal, evangelical, and Jehovah's Witnesses) compared to the religious majority (Greek Orthodox).
This article discusses the various ways religion and spirituality may relate to one’s career development and how religion and spirituality may be incorporated into the workplace.
Management education has a legitimate role to play in introducing teachings drawn from our religious traditions into business ethics and other courses.
This article addresses religious diversity in the United States, the anti-discrimination statute known as Title VII, and the vagueness of religious accommodation.
The paper reports the findings of thirteen interviews with prominent Sri Lankan business leaders drawn from Buddhist, Christian, Hindu, and Muslim religious traditions. The findings suggest that religion plays a significant role in Sri Lankan leaders’ decision-making – in that a frame of reference based on a connection with an ultimate reality is likely to be a source of guidance to leaders’ critical decision-making.
This article covers the history of religion and the workplace and the problems addressed by laws such as Title VII.
This paper argues that religious belief can be an important, legitimate, and even necessary element for corporate ethics, but because it can have negative consequences, religious inspiration must be tempered by a more basic, natural framework.
This article suggests that companies should consider having written policies about religious discrimination and accommodation.
The paper examines the impact of five dimensions of workplace spirituality (team’s sense of community, alignment with organizational values, sense of contribution to society, enjoyment at work, opportunities for inner life) on affective, normative and continuance commitment.
This paper explores when and how the expression of diverse religious identities induces relational conflicts in the workplace. It delineates particularities of religious diversity that distinguish this diversity type from other diversity attributes. Concerning practical argues that it is important to not only foster self-expression, but also to be aware of the risks that the public expression of religious identities entails.
In a workplace where a large majority of employees believe that their work practices are spiritual, they experience the sacred in a variety of ways. Many workers may still struggle to find opportunities to practice their spiritual beliefs, they may have other work experiences that cause them to doubt spirituality's relevance, and they may perceive talk about spirituality to be unwelcome.
This article sorts out the implications of first amendment religion clauses for labor and employment law.
This article explores the relationship between Scientology, its consulting companies, and medical professionals who became involved in religious ideology through management consulting.
Suggests that requests for religious accommodation may well explode over the next decade and that a rising number of discrimination cases are being filed. Cites the most common elements of religious discrimination. Discusses the Workplace Religious freedom Act and the guidance of the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. Provides some examples of good practice and lists some recommendations.
This article examines the most common types of religious expression in the workplace and discusses the extent of the legal obligation of an employer to accommodate those expressions.
In light of increased attention on religiosity and work, the results of previous research on the relationship between religiosity and job satisfaction are examined.
This paper compares religion to other forms of diversity by exploring the religion and work relationship.
This article examines the role and impact of religion and spirituality in the workplace, reviews court cases and political measures regarding religious expression in the public sector, explores a private sector model to explain the interrelationship between religion and spirituality in the public workplace, and challenges public administrators to consider the positive role that religion and spirituality can play in the public workplace.
This paper defines spirituality and religion from the perspective of the workplace and documents the increasing importance of these phenomena. The paper then explores the legal issues of employers’ duty to accommodate their employees’ religious and spiritual beliefs and concludes with some recommendations to employers.
This paper summarizes the different perspectives of spirituality, discusses the benefits of encouraging spirituality within organizations, and examines different perspectives of implementing a spirituality‐based culture within firms.
To prepare future managers to face the challenge of managing spiritual diversity, management educators may choose to treat employee spirituality as a cross-cultural issue. This article provides a framework for educators to incorporate the management of employee spirituality into the curriculum.
This article constructs an alternative analysis to the “everyone wins” conclusions drawn within most workplace spirituality (WPS) research. The article reveals two potentially negative organizational dimensions of WPS: control and instrumentality and investigates into WPS seduction, evangelization, manipulation, and subjugation, through practical examples.
Notwithstanding the potentially nebulous philosophical dialogue concerning a definition of religion, the law defining religion is ripe for lengthy and acrimonious legal debate. Included in this debate are the rights and responsibilities of employers to grant reasonable accommodation and their defense of undue hardship.
This article helps answer the question of what legal responsibilities employers have to accommodate work schedules of employees to allow for observance of religious activities. It also seeks to establish parameters of employees' rights to dictate aspects of their personal appearance.
This paper argues that it is a mistake to protect religion and/or belief in like manner to grounds such as sex, race, sexual orientation and disability and that requiring the accommodation of practices or beliefs categorised as ‘religious’ tends to perpetuate practices and beliefs which are problematic on equality and other grounds.
This article explores six issues pertaining to the successful implementation of spirituality in the workplace: (1) net economic cost of implementation, (2) potential for worker exploitation, (3) replacing or substituting community's function or role in spirituality, (4) inappropriate practice of spirituality in the workplace, (5) potential for competitive disadvantage, and (6) increased groupthink.
This paper examines the requirements of Title VII, the Free Exercise Clause of the First Amendment and the Religious Freedom Restoration Act of 1993 (RFRA)'s impact on First Amendment litigation in the context of employment discrimination, and the effect of RFRA on the most common area of Title VII religious-accommodation litigation, the inflexibility of seniority provisions of collective bargaining agreements to accommodate Sabbatarians. It argues that RFRA is a landmark development for employees who allege that their employers fail to reasonably accommodate their religious beliefs and exercise.
Religious harassment, like race, sex, and age harassment, is a growing problem in the U.S. workforce. Employers must balance precariously between their Title VII accommodation duty and their duty to prevent religious harassment in the workplace.
As the workplace diversifies, and as many people are no longer willing to separate their religious identities from their work identities, there is a distinct need to delineate clear guidelines on appropriate workplace behavior with regard to religious beliefs. This article examines an area of complexity and lack of clarity, with two major competing interests at stake: (1) the First Amendment freedoms of free speech and religious expression, and (2) the right to be free from religious harassment.
This paper articulates two ethical dilemmas related to workplace spirituality: the “quiet desperation” dilemma and the instrumentality dilemma.
A readily understandable, practical guide for employers, human resource professionals, unions, and lawyers on navigating the legal "minefield" of Title VII, other federal employment laws, and the First Amendment.